Introductionp. 1
IThe Argument
1The Argument in a Nutshellp. 17
2Recurring Flawsp. 23
IIThe Background
3The Origins of Measuring and Paying for Performancep. 29
4Why Metrics Became So Popularp. 39
5Principals, Agents, and Motivationp. 49
6Philosophical Critiquesp. 59
IIIThe Mismeasure of all Things? Case Studies
7Colleges and Universitiesp. 67
8Schoolsp. 89
9Medicinep. 103
10Policingp. 125
11The Militaryp. 131
12Business and Financep. 137
13Philanthropy and Foreign Aidp. 153
Excursus
14When Transparency Is the Enemy of Performance: Politics, Diplomacy, Intelligence, and Marriagep. 159
IVConclusions
15Unintended but Predictable Negative Consequencesp. 169
16When and How to Use Metrics: A Checklistp. 175
Acknowledgmentsp. 185
Notesp. 189
Indexp. 213